Vol. 3 (1994):
Table of Contents and Abstracts of Papers
Nos. 1/2: Special Issue: Proc.
3rd GKPO'94 Conference (Table of Contents),
No. 3 (Abstracts of Papers),
No. 4 (Abstracts of Papers).
Starting from Nos. 3 and 4 of this volume, we will also include in these pages the Abstracts of papers published in Machine GRAPHICS & VISION journal.
Machine GRAPHICS & VISION, Vol. 3 (1994), Nos. 1/2:
Special issue:
Proc. 3rd International Conference on Computer Graphics and Image Processing (GKPO'94),
Spala, Poland, May 1620, 1994.
Stepien C., Kalisiak Z., Gracki K.:
Elastic meshes in dynamic modeling for computer graphics.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 522.
Branki N.E., Grabska E.J:
The Coup D'Oeil: a realization scheme for emergent forms in design.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 2332.
Stepien C., Chabko K.:
The conversion of the data describing the solids in the polygonal form
into the mesh form.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 3342.
Putz B., Ciarski R:
The interactive tool for editing and shape evaluation of bicubic surfaces.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 4350.
Nagae T., Agui T., Nagahashi H.:
Isosurface construction from volume data.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 5160.
Pawlak M.:
On digital approximation of moment descriptors.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 6168.
Denkowska S., Grabska E.J., Marek K.:
Application of Birkhoff's aesthetic measure to computer aided design of vases.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 6975.
Kulpa Z.:
Diagrammatic representation and reasoning.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 77103.
Rokita P:
Generation of depth of field effects in virtual reality applications.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 105110.
Ballo M.:
A new approach to non selfintersecting polygon clipping.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 111122.
Myszkowski K., Wicynski K., Khodulev A:
Simulation of ideal specular light path by ray tracing.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 123137.
Wojdala A., Gruszewski M., Dudkiewicz K.:
Using hardware texture mapping for efficient image synthesis and
walkthrough with specular effects.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 139151.
Oksala T.:
Architectural pattern generation: semantic dimensions and pragmatic finals.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 153160.
Grabska E.J., Grabski W.S., Jablonski M., Skomorowski M.:
Application of neural networks to pattern generation.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 161170.
Sramek M.:
Cubic macroregions for fast voxel traversal.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 171179.
Chrzaszcz W., Stepien C., Chabko K.:
Visualization of mesh modeled objects whose shapes vary in time.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 181192.
Bruyelle J.L., Cabestaing F., Le Moal E.:
Video effects by extracting edges of moving objects.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 193201.
Wcislo R., Dzwinel W., Kitowski J., Moscinski J.:
Realtime animation using molecular dynamics methods.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 203210.
Chrzaszcz J.R.:
Predicting performance of a graphics subsystem.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 211218.
Rzeszut J.:
Accurate colour rendering  the comparison of desaturation algorithms.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 219232.
Newton A.:
A continuous analogue human computer interface,
a possible aid to the assimilation of calculated results.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 233240.
Serba I., Prikryl P.:
Creative graphics in education.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 241248.
Morawski M.:
On recognition of distorted objects on binary images.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 249256.
Kulikowski J.L.:
Recognition of patterns in semiordered observation spaces.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 257262.
Agui T., Terada K., Nagahashi H., Nagao T.:
A technique for 3D object recognition using superquadrics.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 263273.
Nagao T., Agui T., Nagahashi H.:
2D and 3D object recognition using a genetic algorithm.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 275286.
Polanski A., Borek A.:
The decomposition of the parameter space for recognition of polygonal shapes.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 287296.
Kasprzak W.:
Road object tracking in monocular image sequence under egomotion.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 297308.
Garduno M., Vachon B.:
Range image based obstacle detection during mobile robot motion.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 309318.
Sair K., Burger P.:
An accurate evaluation of myocardium shape from ultrafast CT images
using an active contour model.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 319328.
Mendonca H., Marques de Sa J.P., Silva Carvalho J.L.:
A computer based system of uterine hysteroscopic images analysis.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 329338.
Zaremba M.B., Porada E., Skorek A.:
Connectionist processing of images for measurement and control systems.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 339346.
Starovoitov V.:
Distance transform as clustering tool.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 347354.
Vannoorenberghe P., Wachowski K., Barsoum B. Postaire J.G.:
Multilevel thresholding for image segmentation.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 355362.
Bekkhoucha A., Smolarz A.:
Two methods of contrast enhancement based on edges detection.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 363372.
Ismaili I.A., Gillies D.F.:
Colour image segmentation using regression analysis in RGB space.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 373384.
Niedzwiecki M., Suchomski P.:
On a new class of edgepreserving filters for noise rejection from images.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 385392.
Takahashi H., Agui T., Nagahashi H.:
Designing neural networks using several kinds of activation functions
by genetic algorithms.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 393402.
Balaban I.J.:
An optimal algorithm for finding segments intersections.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 403410.
Sklodowski M.,
Cudny W.:
Theory and draft algorithm for the light wavelength stepping method.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 411420.
Ostrowski T., Woznicki J.:
Suboptimal weighted order statistic filtering using genetic algorithm.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 421429.
Skarbek W.:
Banach constructor in fractal compression.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 431441.
Ignasiak K., Skarbek W.:
Tree structures for vector quantization.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 443449.
Ignasiak K., Lukaszewicz W., Skarbek W.:
Colour quantization methods.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 451456.
Bedkowski K., Karaszkiewicz W., Mozgawa J., Olenderek H., Piekarski E.:
Some aspects of the use of video imageries in forestry.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 457461.
Defrocourt S., FernandezMaloigne C., Duran M.:
Use of texture descriptors for adaptative coding.
MGV vol. 3, nos. 1/2, 1994, pp. 463478.
Machine GRAPHICS & VISION, Vol. 3 (1994), No. 3:
 Grabska E.:
Theoretical concepts of graphical modeling.
Part three: state of the art.
MGV vol. 3, no. 3, 1994, pp. 481512.

The paper carries out a multilevel analysis of our approach to graphical
modeling, and this approach is discussed within the framework of graph
transformations and the framework of automated pattern synthesis. On the
other hand, some possibilities of using our approach in architecture and
computer art are presented.

Gröller E.,
Löffelmann H.:
Extended camera specification for image synthesis.
MGV vol. 3, no. 3, 1994, pp. 513530.

Typically a rather simple definition of the viewing parameters (e.g.,
perspective projection) is used for ray tracing, which is one of the most
powerful rendering techniques for generating realistic images. In this paper
this simple camera model is extended in several ways to increase user
flexibility. A sequence of mappings defines a more general way to assign 3D
rays for each pixel of the final raster image. These rays are then taken as
primary rays in the following ray tracing step. An extended camera
specification, for example, makes possible the projection of the object scene
onto more general projection surfaces (quadrics, free form surfaces).
Different views of the same object scene may be incorporated within one
single image. A test implementation and sample images show the feasibility of
the approach. The extended camera specification enables more elaborate
viewing techniques which may be used, e.g. for virtual reality, arts and
special effects.
Key words: computer graphics, ray tracing, camera specifications.
 Ablameyko S., Okun O.:
Text separation from graphics based on compactness and area properties.
MGV vol. 3, no. 3, 1994, pp. 531541.

Separation of text from graphics is one of the important tasks in document
image processing. This task can be solved by many hitherto proposed methods,
provided that the processed document satisfies some constraints. Examples of
such constraints are: 1) text lines must be exactly horizontal or vertical,
i.e. without skew; 2) text and graphics blocks must have a rectangular
shape. In practice, these constraints (or at least one of them) can be
violated. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to perform the
text/graphics separation for technical paper pages when the above constraints
are ignored. Our approach is based on two simple properties of these
documents: the area and the compactness property. The separation is performed
by considering only the area and the bounding rectangle of connected
components. The proposed properties take into account both geometrical and
spatial relationships between text and graphics elements. The area property
allows to separate the largesized graphics from other components quickly.
The compactness property allows to select the text components when the above
constraints are violated.
Key words: bounding rectangle, text/graphics separation,
document analysis, connected component.
 Chmielewski L.,
Sklodowski M.,
Cudny W.,
Nieniewski M.,
Kurianski A., Michalski B.:
Fringe image enhancing in the light wavelength stepping method.
MGV vol. 3, no. 3, 1994, pp. 543578.

Images used for the Light Wavelength Stepping Method (LWSM), obtained in
white light and with random dot patterns, are different from typical fringe
images because of their `grainy' texture and untypical sparseness of fringes.
For these images the traditional fringeoriented methods of image enhancement
which rely on the directional and repetitive structure of an image fail.
Hence, three other methods have been adapted and tested: adaptive median
filtering, image enhancement based on estimated Markov model, and image
enhancement based on weak membrane model. While the results are satisfying
for all of them, the smoothing capability of the Markov and membrane methods,
the contrast preserving feature of the adaptive median filter, and the edge
preserving capability of the membrane method have to be emphasized.
A procedure for equalizing and enhancing the contrast of a fringe image has
been proposed and evaluated. From the underlying study a conclusion
concerning the position of fringes in real images can be drawn.
Key words: fringe images, image enhancing, speckle methods,
Light Wave Stepping Method, fringe image equalizing.
 Bielecki A., Rog M.:
Aesthetic measure for fractals consisting of line segments.
MGV vol. 3, no. 3, 1994, pp. 579588.

This article discusses the aesthetic measure of fractal sets
consisting of line segments according to the Birkhoff theory.
The complexity of fractal set is proposed in the way that it
does not converge to infinity. Some examples of the aesthetic
measure for a few fractals are calculated as well.
Key words: aesthetic measure, complexity, fractal set.
 Rudak B., Szyszkowicz M.:
Selfreference sentences and patterns.
MGV vol. 3, no. 3, 1994, pp. 591594.

Selfreference sentences in fuzzy logic are realized as iterative processes.
The behaviour of such dynamical systems is represented graphically.
In this study more attention is given to very and fairly
in logical sentences.
 Szyszkowicz M.:
Three experiments with chaos.
MGV vol. 3, no. 3, 1994, pp. 595598.

Examples of three nonstandard dynamical systems are presented and
illustrated.
 Luchowski L.:
Segmentation of images in flat binary scenes in uneven lighting. [Dissertation Abstract]
MGV vol. 3, no. 3, 1994, p. 599.
Machine GRAPHICS & VISION, Vol. 3 (1994), No. 4:
 Myszkowski K., Wojdala A., Wicynski K.:
Nonuniform adaptive meshing for global illumination.
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, pp. 601609.

This paper presents an efficient adaptive mesh subdivision
technique for viewindependent, global illumination solutions. The
main goal is to provide experimental proof that relaxing the
requirement for wellshaped mesh (i.e. allowing disproportions in size
and shape of mesh elements, e.g. long, thin triangles) and using
variable luminance thresholds to adaptively control mesh subdivision
can significantly reduce the number of mesh elements without degrading
shading quality. As a result, total time of the lighting simulation is
shortened, and subtle shading details can be revealed where other
algorithms fail.
Key words: global illumination, meshing algorithms.
 Chrzaszcz J.R.:
Monitoring data stream in a visual system.
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, pp. 611623.

Designing visual system is a complex task that must be supported with
appropriate software tools. Behavioral simulation is perceived as feasible
technique for deriving reliable predictions of system performance. In order
to obtain meaningful results the model parameters as well as data stream
characteristics should reflect reality. The application considered here is
flight simulation and this paper presents a method for determining data
stream properties, such as distribution of number and size of objects falling
into pilot's field of view. Developed approach requires a sixdimensional
observation space (3 position coordinates and 3 orientation angles) to be
scanned with a synthetic camera. For each sampling point the data base
containing terrain description is traversed and statistics of visible objects
are recorded.
The problem and its background are outlined first, then solution concept and
generic algorithm is described and, finally, the implementation and results
are discussed.
Key words: visual system, flight simulation, data stream
properties, pilot's observation space.
 Skala V., Kolingerova I., Blaha P.:
A comparison of 2D line clipping algorithms.
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, pp. 625633.

A comparative study of new line clipping algorithms for 2D convex
polygons is presented and the evaluation of algorithms'
efficiency based on theoretical analysis and experimental results
is given. Complexity of all compared algorithms is O(N).
Key words: line clipping, convex polygon, dual space
application, computer graphics.
 Bak R., Kasinski A.:
A fast algorithm for hidden faces removal with application to animated
geometrical modellers.
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, pp. 635644.

Animated geometrical models are used in CAD/CAE systems for planning tasks
of robots. This is an application where the readability of the dynamic
picture is of primary importance. In perspective, which is used to present 3D
views of the robot workcell, good readability is achieved by the shading and
elimination of hidden surfaces. We propose an algorithm for solving
visibility dilemmas for the case of dynamic, articulated structures made of
convex polytopes. The algorithm has been implemented as a kernel of the robot
scene modeller and trajectory planner. The performance of the image
generation process as compared with algorithms based on known methods
improved considerably. A scene with a six  DOF robot and obstacles, with all
elements shaded, could be animated in realtime even using PC.
 Klopotek M.A.:
Recovery of structure of looped jointed objects from multiframes.
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, pp. 645656.

A method to recover structural parameters of looped jointed objects from
multiframes is being developed. Each rigid part of the jointed body needs
only to be traced at two (that is at junction) points. This method has been
linearized for 4part loops, with recovery from at least 19 frames.
 Kierzenkowski K., Puchalski J.:
Object contour recognition using oriented grids.
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, pp. 657665.

In this paper an oriented grid method (OGM) is proposed for pattern
recognition. OGM is a circular scanning method based on the centroid of the
contour and a reference vector of the object. First, we extract the set of
features of the object from vectorial representation of its contour at the
centre of its gravity. Next, the way to find the reference vector of the
object contour is proposed. The grid operator which is composed of
translation, rotation and decomposition is applied. This operator enables to
represent object contour as a two dimensional matrix invarianting to scal,
translations and rotations. This approach, using regular square grid, is
demonstrated to recognize objects without symmetry or with one symmetry axis.
The method has been verified experimentally and its sensitivity to the mirror
image transformation is shown.
 Asselin de Beauville J.P., Bi D., Langlais L.:
Texture segmentation using grey levels rankvectors.
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, pp. 667674.

Texture is often defined as the repetition of primitives.
Following this definition, a rankvector is presented to obtain the texture
primitives, the histogram of which is calculated in a region to extract the
texture features, by clustering the histograms in different regions, a
supervised texture segmentation algorithm is developed. The results have
shown that the method presented in this paper is effective for a variety of
textures.
Key words: texture definition, texture features, segmentation,
texture analysis, clustering, rankvector.
 Michelitsch T.:
A quasiJulia set generated by a nonanalytic trigonometric function.
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, pp. 677679.

A mapping generated by a nonanalytic trigonometric function with manipulated
imaginary part is presented. Its quasiJulia set yields surprising, almost
circular disks. A Riemann projection of this quasiJulia set appears like a
moon with craters.
Key words: Mandelbrot set, Julia set, nonanalytic mapping,
quasiJulia set, Riemann sphere.
 Kurianski A.:
Detection and motion tracking by means of spatiotemporal modelling
of images using random fields. [Dissertation Abstract]
MGV vol. 3, no. 4, 1994, p. 681.
 Revievers' index
 Authors' index
 Contents of volume 3, 1994
Maintained by Zenon Kulpa
Last updated Oct 4, 1999